By John Shand
Principal Works of Philosophy is an important multi-volume selection of essays at the middle texts of the Western philosophical culture. From Plato's Republic to the current day, the 5 volumes variety over 2,500 years of philosophical writing masking the easiest, such a lot consultant, and such a lot influential paintings of a few of our best philosophers. each one essay has been especially commissioned and offers an outline of the paintings, transparent and authoritative exposition of its crucial rules, and an evaluation of the work's significance. jointly those books supply an unmatched better half for learning and examining philosophy, person who introduces the reader to the masterpieces of the western philosophical canon. The interval, 1900-60, which this quantity covers, witnessed alterations in logical and linguistic research a ways past something dreamt of within the earlier background of the topic. the quantity starts off with chapters at the key texts of the Cambridge philosophers, Moore, Russell and Wittgenstein, which jointly marked the emergence of "analytical" philosophy. The Vienna Circle of the Twenties, and the improvement of logical positivism within the Nineteen Thirties and Nineteen Forties are represented by means of chapters on primary works via Carnap and Ayer. William James's Pragmatism, which formulated pragmatism's epistemology and made it recognized in the course of the international represents within the quantity the detailed rules of the yankee pragmatists. Essays on Husserl's the belief of Phenomenology, Heidegger's Being and Time, Sartre's Being and Nothingness and Merleau-Ponty's Phenomenology of conception hide the middle texts of the highly major phenomenological flow. Of the linguistic philosophy that ruled the English-speaking global within the fast postwar years, Wittgenstein's Philosophical Investigations and Ryle's the concept that of the brain are mentioned in flip. the amount concludes with Karl Popper's influential account of the character of science..
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Additional info for Central Works of Philosophy 4: The Twentieth Century: Moore to Popper
The philosophy of the later Wittgenstein presents a different view of language. This denies that there is anything whatsoever external to language, including his own notion of a picturing relation to the world, that does or could determine the meaning of linguistic expressions. Rather, language is entirely autonomous. ’”20 Language acquires its meaning through its use; nothing more and nothing less; the meaning of linguistic expression is its proper use. There are many uses, not just that of describing reality.
This desire is not aimed at future pleasure, but is caused by a present pleasure. Moore argues further that pleasure cannot be the only thing we desire, for without the inclusion of what it is that we will get pleasure from, our desires will be indeterminate. If the desire were directed solely towards the pleasure, it could not lead me to take the wine; if it is to take a definite direction, it is absolutely necessary that the idea of the object, from which the pleasure is expected, should also be present and should control my activity.
What ethics can do, however, is show which among the alternatives likely to occur to any one will generally produce the best sum of good (PE: 201); that is, ethics can come up with a set of rules that we have reason to believe will on the whole produce good outcomes. This view may make Moore seem like he is proposing a form of ruleconsequentialism, but he is not. Rule-consequentialists maintain that the right act is determined by whether it accords with a set of rules for the general regulation of society that would produce the best outcome if generally accepted.
Central Works of Philosophy 4: The Twentieth Century: Moore to Popper by John Shand