By Edmund W. Jupp
The purpose of the "Watching" sequence is to attract consciousness to a couple of the very fascinating goods round us, issues that maybe we do not realize up to we'd. the 1st used to be "Bridge Watching", and while this used to be placed "on the internet" it produced, to the shock of the writer, one of these friendly flood of e mail that one other used to be written, known as "Water Watching". This, too, was once kindly obtained. So it used to be tempting to proceed with the subject matter. anywhere we pass we appear to meet bridges. generally we have a tendency to use them nearly with out noticing them, other than once we see a very amazing instance just like the suspension bridge over the river Tamar in Devon. there isn't any try and hide every little thing approximately bridges, simply enough to make a bridge a extra attention-grabbing item for you, or your digital camera, or your paint-box. I do wish it is going to assist you to get pleasure from bridges, at any place you spot them. they're such great cozy issues to observe, specially if you recognize anything approximately them. As both a pastime or an highbrow pursuit bridge-watching has a lot to commend it, for individuals of every age and persuasions. you do not have to pay a subscription. you could take pleasure in it by yourself or in corporation, and climate is comparatively unimportant. It does not desire any distinctive garments or apparatus. (If you're keen on, you should use box glasses or cameras, and note-books; yet they don't seem to be essential). you would like no education, no perform, no training. From all angles, bridge-watching is an enticing hobby, around the globe. exit and luxuriate in those interesting constructions. you'll locate them addictive, within the nicest real way.
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Extra resources for Bridge Watching
They enjoy seeing the equations wriggle their way towards a solution, especially when it comes out right. They are accustomed to doing much of it in their heads. Also, people who deal with bridges all the time soon get a feel for them, and can make a pretty shrewd guess at what is wanted for many of the conditions met in design work. An experienced bridge engineer will sketch a bending moment diagram and tell you what section is needed here and there before you have had time to load the program into the computer.
If you push down on part of a beam you tend to slide that part downwards against the parts on either side. That is how you get shear stress , and in this case it is called "vertical shear" because the line of sliding is vertical. You would also have shear if you pushed the top half of the beam to the right and the bottom half to the left. This would be "horizontal shear" since the line of sliding between the two parts would be horizontal. This happens in all beams, as we shall show later. Taking these three kinds of stress we can say, generally speaking, that ties take tension, struts bear compression, and shear occurs in beams.
The danger from fatigue arises when a material is subjected to a large number of fluctuations or reversals of stress, tension to compression and back again perhaps, several million times. You may think that it would take a very long time to get through a million fluctuations; but this is not so if they happen quickly, at a high frequency. After all, at a frequency of 50 a second you reach a million in a few hours. So a tie that is part of a bridge for many years suffers many millions of stress changes in its life-time.
Bridge Watching by Edmund W. Jupp