By Neal E. Artz, Elizabeth M. Osman
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Extra resources for Biochemistry of Glucuronic Acid
Furthermore, although these investigators conclude that the uronic acid in the liver of adult rabbits is probably galacturonic acid because the animal is herbivorous and ingests a diet containing pectic substances rather than mucin, Williams (443) reports the isolation of 40 g. of glucuronolactone for each 100 g. of menthol fed to rabbits, indicating that the uronic acid excreted must be largely glucuronic. It also has been reported by Werch and Ivy (436) that less than 10 per cent, if any, of the galacturonic acid introduced as an isosmotic and isotonic solution is absorbed from the canine or human intestine.
Glycine conjugation or hippuric acid synthesis 4. cysteine conjugation or mercapturic acid synthesis 5. ornithine conjugation or ornithuric acid synthesis 6. glutamine conjugation 7. acetylation 8. methylation 9. thiocyanate detoxication Not all of these mechanisms are possible for all animal species and, more important, not all of them actually result in reduced toxicity when they occur. Glucuronic acid conjugation is by far the most common of these syntheses. It has been found to occur in all species studied, and appears to result in a reduction in toxicity and greatly increased solubility at physiological pH levels.
This was confirmed by Baeyer (13) in 1870. On the basis of the equation for formation of euxanthone from euxanthic acid, Baeyer stated that the reducing substance, which he termed "a kind of saccharic acid," should have the formula CeHio07, which now is known to be correct for glucuronic acid. Mering and Musculus (258) in 1875 observed that, following ingestion of chloral hydrate, man excreted in the urine a compound which is strongly acidic, copper-reducing and levorotatory. This compound was isolated in crys35 36 BIOCHEMISTRY OF GLUCURONIC ACID talline form and named urochloralic acid.
Biochemistry of Glucuronic Acid by Neal E. Artz, Elizabeth M. Osman