By Prof. Dr. Takayoshi Higuchi (auth.)
Progress in wooden chemistry has been similar customarily to chemical wooden pulping and bleaching and chemical usage of wooden and wooden extractives. Meth ods of wooden research have been constructed through Schorger (proximate research in 1917) and Dore (summative research in 1919), and conventional tools in keeping with Schorger's approach, e.g., TAPPI criteria (Technical organization of the Pulp and Paper Industry), were regularly occurring for chemical research of woods in lots of international locations. therefore it really is ordinarily recognized that wooden consists of approximately 50% cellulose, 20-35% of lignin, 15-25% of hemicelluloses, and variable quantities of extractives. Chemical characterization and effective usage of those wooden elements were studied in laboratories of wooden chemistry and expertise in universities and executive associations. within the final decade, biochemistry and molecular biology of microorganisms, animals, and crops have vastly advanced. whilst wooden has been famous as a different renewable ecomaterial produced through bushes utilizing solar power. additionally, many fascinating homes of wooden and wooden parts as biomaterial that has effects on body structure and psychology in people have lately attracted attention.
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Additional info for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Wood
The ER can be divided into rough and smooth ER. The former has ribosomes on the surface of its membrane, while the latter lacks ribosomes. In rough ER, several layers of cisternae are arranged in parallel, and ribosomes are attached on the surface of the cisternae membrane on the cytoplasm side. The ER membrane contains a specific protein that is associated with a 60S subunit. In many cases, ribosomes are present as a spiral polysome connected to mRNA (Figs. 21, 22). Polypeptides newly synthesized by ribosomes are translocated to the ER lumen through pores on the ER membrane.
Fructose-I,6-bisphosphate is degraded to two molecules of triosephosphate (dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate) by aldolase. 52 Primary Metabolism in Woody Plants Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate is converted to pyruvic acid via several reactions, as described in Fig. 43. The characteristics of the enzyme involved in glycolysis are as follows: 1. 13), which catalyze the aldol cleavage of fructose-l,6bisphosphate, yielding dihydroxyacetone phosphate and GAP, are classi- t; CH,OH CD t= T @ ~ NAD' ATP ~NADH ADP CH, I CHO CH,o® )-0, @1l COOH I ~H'OH F6P CH, Lactic acid Pi~ CD @ ATP ADP I T=O CH,O® DHAP H, 9-0 C ~ I ~ @l COOH I c=o Pyruvic acid I CH, @J~ ATP ~ADP COOH F1,6BP CH,OH NAD' NADH HOTH CH,O® Pi Acetaldehyde G6P ~ PPI Ethanol H, CH,OH Glucose ~O® PEP I CH, COOH I 2PGA HCO® GAP I CH,oH HCOH I CH,O® 01 v--- ~ ® o'9-0 NAD' + Pi NADH I CH,O® I H' COOH I 3PGA HCOH I C H~OH ~ 1 ,3PGA CH,O® ®J~ ~ ATP ADP Fig.
Courtesy of K. Sano) plates were formed. They suggested that the ER contains an enzyme system catalyzing the synthesis of cell wall polysaccharides and their precursors. Variously shaped ER were observed along cell walls, especially in cells forming the S2layer, and several ER were connected to neighboring cells to penetrate cell membranes. During cell wall formation, many rough ER are present in wood cells. In particular, during primary cell wall formation a rough ER develops to synthesize wall proteins and enzymes involved in cell wall formation.
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Wood by Prof. Dr. Takayoshi Higuchi (auth.)