By L. Buszynski
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Additional info for Asia Pacific Security - Values and Identity (Routledgecurzon Security in Asia Series, 2)
55 In December 1994, a PLA strategy conference on Taiwan was held which included CMC ViceChairman Zhang Zhen, Chief of the General Staff Chi Haotian, and CMC member Zhang Wannian, together with retired generals such as Hong Xuezhi and Zhang Aiping. 57 The CMC has been chaired by President Jiang Zemin since November 1989, with two vice-chairmen of military background, increased to four in October 1995 and reduced to three in 2002, and with a total membership of 8–9. The PLA reportedly has little inﬂuence over general foreign policy, but its demands over defence spending, force structure and deployments can have a crucial impact upon policy.
Beijing’s actions have, however, strengthened separatist sentiment within Taiwan and had the opposite effects from those intended. 75 Examples abound where central governments resorted to force to suppress ethnic or national separatism and to stimulate a new national consciousness (Bangladesh in 1971 and Eritrea in 1993 are just two). Persecution and intimidation strengthen the feeling of alienation which makes for greater group bonding and identiﬁcation, Values, identity and the signiﬁcance of Taiwan to China 37 creating a common experience where none may have existed before.
Under Article 10 China’s navy is allowed to order the immediate eviction of foreign military vessels which violate Chinese laws as they pass through the South China Sea. Article 14 gives the PRC the right of hot pursuit of foreign military vessels to the high seas or to their countries’ territorial waters. 46 On 9 February 1995 China was discovered to have occupied Mischief or Panganiban reef in the Philippine claim area. 47 After 1995 the Chinese strengthened their presence and in April 1996 the Philippine navy discovered the addition of two rectangular ﬁshing quarters at Mischief reef, which were extended in 1998 and completed in February 1999.
Asia Pacific Security - Values and Identity (Routledgecurzon Security in Asia Series, 2) by L. Buszynski