By Thomas Ming Swi Chang
This can be a finished and primary classification assessment of approximately all very important and primary advancements of artifiical cells by means of the nestor of this department in utilized biomedial technological know-how himself. This "bible" is key interpreting for either rookies and the skilled specialist. Chang wrote a fantastic and stimulating evaluation over 50 years of man-made phone learn and improvement and purposes.
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Extra info for Artificial Cells: Biotechnology, Nanomedicine, Regenerative Medicine, Blood Substitutes, Bioencapsulation, Cell/Stem Cell Therapy (Regenerative Medicine, Artificial Cells and Nanomedicine)
Lower : Artiﬁcial cells containing biological cells. Priniciple has been extended and used by many groups for bioencapsulation of islets, cells, genetically-engineered cells and stem cells (Chang, Nature Rev. Drug Discovery, 2005). ch02 FA April 2, 2007 12:8 SPI-B446 Artiﬁcial Cells: Biotechnology, Nanotechnology, Blood Substitutes, Regenerative... 24 Artiﬁcial Cells survival of acute liver failure rats (Wong and Chang 1986); lowers the high bilirubin level in congenital Gunn rats (Bruni and Chang, 1989); and prevents xenograft rejection (Wong and Chang, 1988).
This recombinant human Hb has been developed and tested in clinical trials (Freytag and Templeton, 1997). Vasopressor effects are observed in clinical trials. , 1998). The new recombinant human Hb is also a potential source of Hb for PolyHb and conjugated Hb and other future generation Hb-based blood substitutes. 1, most of the basic principles of modiﬁed Hb have been made available by the 1960s. Unfortunately, there was no public interest in these approaches then. The major efforts at that time were concentrated on the production of puriﬁed native Hb (SFHb) and perﬂuorochemicals.
If the emulsion is made very small, then the whole submicron artiﬁcial cells can be crosslinked into PolyHb of nanodimension. Glutaraldehyde can crosslink hemoglobin to form soluble nanodimension PolyHb, each consisting of an assembly of 4–5 hemoglobin molecules (Chang, 1971b) (Fig. 2). Two groups have independently developed this 1971 basic method of glutaraldehyde crosslinking for clinical use. , 2002). Their phase III clinical trial shows that this PolyHb can replace blood lost in trauma surgery by keeping the blood hemoglobin at an acceptable level.
Artificial Cells: Biotechnology, Nanomedicine, Regenerative Medicine, Blood Substitutes, Bioencapsulation, Cell/Stem Cell Therapy (Regenerative Medicine, Artificial Cells and Nanomedicine) by Thomas Ming Swi Chang