By George Emery, Herbert Emery
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Additional info for A Young Man’s Benefit: The Independent Order of Odd Fellows and Sickness Insurance in the United States and Canada, 1860-1929
What is more important, the lodge's stipulated sick and funeral benefits were available to members as a right, not as a charity. The class structure also influenced market behaviour. In Britain, for example, clerks and artisans had similar incomes but spent differently. Artisans tended to buy sickness insurance with fellowship by joining friendly societies. In contrast, clerks were more likely to buy insurance 17 Institutional History of the I o o F without fellowship from centralized bureaucratic organizations such as the Hearts of Oak (Johnson, 1985).
In its totality, the IOOF'S organization resembled that of the Freemasons. Like the Odd Fellows, the Masons had lodges, higher-degree lodges (like encampments), and a woman's auxiliary branch (Daughters of the Eastern Star). The IOOF'S organization differed, however, from that of other friendly societies. The Knights of Pythias, for example, had nothing comparable to the encampment branch, declined to recognize a female auxiliary branch, and offered an optional endowment degree for Knights who wished to have an annuity benefit.
It dated from 1874 in the United States (Carr, 1975). Industrial insurers issued policies for small amounts without a medical examination. The premiums were "a few cents a week," to be paid to neighbourhood collectors on their weekly rounds. Most industrial policies insured the lives of wives and children, in contrast to ordinary life policies, which were primarily on the lives of male breadwinners. 13 Prologue An annuity uses the proceeds of invested capital to pay a regular pension for life or a contracted number of years.
A Young Man’s Benefit: The Independent Order of Odd Fellows and Sickness Insurance in the United States and Canada, 1860-1929 by George Emery, Herbert Emery