By Gavin Menzies
The brilliance of the Renaissance laid the basis of the trendy global. Textbooks let us know that it happened because of a rediscovery of the information and beliefs of classical Greece and Rome. yet now bestselling historian Gavin Menzies makes the startling argument that during the 12 months 1434, China—then the world's so much technologically complex civilization—provided the spark that set the eu Renaissance ablaze. From that date onward, Europeans embraced chinese language rules, discoveries, and innovations, all of which shape the root of Western civilization at the present time.
The New York Times bestselling writer of 1421 combines a long-overdue ancient reexamination with the thrill of an investigative experience, bringing the reader aboard the amazing chinese language fleet because it sails from China to Cairo and Florence, after which again the world over. Erudite and brilliantly reasoned, 1434 will swap the way in which we see ourselves, our background, and our global.
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Additional info for 1434: The Year a Magnificent Chinese Fleet Sailed to Italy and Ignited the Renaissance
1, the path length between nodes A and F is 3 because the shortest chain (A ! B ! C ! F) has three edges. There is a well-known notion in sociology called six degrees of separation. ) This is related to the idea that, despite the world’s population of over seven billion, everyone is, on average, only about six steps away from any other person in the sense that a chain of six acquaintanceships or fewer can connect any two people. In this case the number six is an example of the mathematical notion of average path length.
The method draws on network science, the study of systems with interacting elements that can be represented mathematically by graphs. Network science itself is associated with statistical physics, a branch of physics which employs probability theory and statistics to capture properties of large collections of interacting entities. Many ancient narratives—from the sagas of Icelanders, through epics such as the Iliad and Beowulf, to the stories contained in medieval Irish manuscripts—record multiple interactions between sometimes vast numbers of characters and social network analysis is an excellent tool to quantify their collective properties.
Who shall survive? A new approach to the problem of human interrelations. Washington DC: Nervous and Mental Disease Publishing Co. Myers, C. R. (2003). Software systems as complex networks: Structure, function, and evolvability of software collaboration graphs. Physical Review E, 68, 046116. Newman, M. E. J. (2001). The structure of scientific collaboration networks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 98, 404–409. Newman, M. E. J. (2002). Assortative mixing in networks.
1434: The Year a Magnificent Chinese Fleet Sailed to Italy and Ignited the Renaissance by Gavin Menzies